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The final revised VBER is planned to enter into force on 1 June 2022. Did you know that the Distribution Law Center is already counting down?


Read the DLC Countdown newsletters on the changes to be expected: HERE.


Translations are available in Czech, CroatianDanishPortuguese, RomanianSlovak, Spanish and Swedish on the pages of our national contributors.

Civil Code

Book one, Title one

Art. 3. 

(1) Execution of rights and obligations arising from civil law relations must not interfere with the rights and legitimate interests of other persons without legal grounds and must not be in conflict with good morals.

Book one, Title four

Art. 39. 

A legal act is invalid if the content or the purpose thereof violates or evades the law or is inconsistent with good morals.

Art. 49.a. 

A legal act is invalid if a person acted in error arising from a circumstance decisive for its creation and the person to whom the legal act was addressed gave rise to the error or had to be aware of the error. A legal act is also invalid if the error was caused by the other person intentionally. An error as to motive shall not make a legal act invalid.

Book six, Title one

Art. 415. 

Every person is obliged to act in such a manner so that no damage to health, property, nature and the environment occurs.

Book six, Title one, Chapter one

Art. 420. 

(1) Every person is liable for the damage he/she causes by a breach of a legal duty.

(2) Damage is caused by a legal entity or a natural person if it is caused during their activity by persons who they authorized to undertake the activity. Such persons shall not be liable for damage so caused under this Act; their liability under labour law shall not be hereby affected.

(3) Any person who proves that he/she did not cause the damage shall be released from liability.

Book six, Title one, Chapter two 

Art. 424. 

Liability for damage shall be also borne by a person who causes damage by intentional immoral conduct.

Book six, Title one, Chapter three

Art. 442. 

(1) Compensation shall cover actual damage and what the aggrieved party lost (lost profits).

(3) Damage shall be compensated in money; if the aggrieved party so requests and if it is possible and practical, the damage shall be compensated by restitution.

Art. 443. 

The amount of damage to the property shall be determined according to the price at the time when the damage occurred.

Art. 450. 

For reasons worthy of special consideration, the court shall reasonably reduce the compensation. While doing so, it shall take into account, in particular, how the damage occurred, and the personal and material situation of the natural person who caused the damage. The court shall also take into account the situation of the natural person who suffered the damage. Compensation may not be reduced if the damage was caused intentionally.

Book Eight, Title Two, Chapter five

Art. 544.

(2) A contractual fine may only be agreed in writing and the agreement shall set out the amount of the fine or the method of its determination.

Book Eight, Title One, Chapter six

Art. 582. 

(1) If a contract is made for an indefinite period of time and the subject of the contract is the obligation to perform a continuous or repeated activity or the obligation to refrain from a certain activity or to tolerate a certain activity and the manner of its termination does not follow from the law or from the contract, then the contract may be terminated at the end of a calendar quarter with a notice period of three months.

(2) Such termination is ineffective in respect of an obligation to refrain from a certain activity if it follows from the nature of the obligation or from the contract that the obligation is unlimited in time.

Prvá časť, prvá hlava

Art. 3. 

(1) Výkon práv a povinností vyplývajúcich z občianskoprávnych vzťahov nesmie bez právneho dôvodu zasahovať do práv a oprávnených záujmov iných a nesmie byť v rozpore s dobrými mravmi.

Prvá časť, štvrtá hlava

Art. 39.

Neplatný je právny úkon, ktorý svojím obsahom alebo účelom odporuje zákonu alebo ho obchádza alebo sa prieči dobrým mravom.

Art. 49.a. 

Právny úkon je neplatný, ak ho konajúca osoba urobila v omyle vychádzajúcom zo skutočnosti, ktorá je pre jeho uskutočnenie rozhodujúca, a osoba, ktorej bol právny úkon určený, tento omyl vyvolala alebo o ňom musela vedieť. Právny úkon je takisto neplatný, ak omyl táto osoba vyvolala úmyselne. Omyl v pohnútke nerobí právny úkon neplatným.

Šiesta časť, prvá hlava

Art. 415. 

Každý je povinný počínať si tak, aby nedochádzalo ku škodám na zdraví, na majetku, na prírode a životnom prostredí.

Šiesta časť, prvá hlava, prvý oddiel

Art. 420. 

(1) Každý zodpovedá za škodu, ktorú spôsobil porušením právnej povinnosti.

(2) Škoda je spôsobená právnickou osobou alebo fyzickou osobou, keď bola spôsobená pri ich činnosti tými, ktorých na túto činnosť použili. Tieto osoby samy za škodu takto spôsobenú podľa tohto zákona nezodpovedajú; ich zodpovednosť podľa pracovnoprávnych predpisov nie je tým dotknutá.

(3) Zodpovednosti sa zbaví ten, kto preukáže, že škodu nezavinil.

Šiesta časť, prvá hlava, druhý oddiel

Art. 424. 

Za škodu zodpovedá aj ten, kto ju spôsobil úmyselným konaním proti dobrým mravom.

Šiesta časť, prvá hlava, tretí oddiel

Art. 442. 

(1) Uhrádza sa skutočná škoda a to, čo poškodenému ušlo (ušlý zisk).

(3) Škoda sa uhrádza v peniazoch; ak však o to poškodený požiada a ak je to možné a účelné, uhrádza sa škoda uvedením do predošlého stavu.

Art. 443. 

Pri určení výšky škody na veci sa vychádza z ceny v čase poškodenia.

Art. 450. 

Z dôvodov hodných osobitného zreteľa súd náhradu škody primerane zníži. Vezme pritom zreteľ najmä na to, ako ku škode došlo, ako aj na osobné a majetkové pomery fyzickej osoby, ktorá ju spôsobila; prihliadne pritom aj na pomery fyzickej osoby, ktorá bola poškodená. Zníženie nemožno vykonať, ak ide o škodu spôsobenú úmyselne.

Ôsma časť, druhá hlava, piaty oddiel

Art. 544. 

(2) Zmluvnú pokutu možno dojednať len písomne a v dojednaní musí byť určená výška pokuty alebo určený spôsob jej určenia.

Ôsma časť, prvá hlava, šiesty oddiel

Art. 582. 

(1) Ak je dojednaná zmluva na dobu neurčitú, ktorej predmetom je záväzok na nepretržitú alebo opakovanú činnosť, alebo záväzok zdržať sa určitej činnosti alebo strpieť určitú činnosť a ak zo zákona alebo zo zmluvy nevyplýva spôsob jej výpovede, možno zmluvu vypovedať v lehote troch mesiacov ku koncu kalendárneho štvrťroka.

(2) Výpoveď je však neúčinná ohľadne záväzku zdržať sa určitej činnosti, ak z jeho povahy alebo zo zmluvy vyplýva, že záväzok je časovo neobmedzený.

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